Digitization of Artworks: From Reproduction to Visualization

Fernanda Araujo, Mackenzie, Brazil

This paper proposes a reflection about the digitization process of artwork’s collections, understood as collections of traditional art’s objects such as paintings, sculptures, prints and drawings, from the reproduction of artwork for a digital object to the representation of this in a virtual environment such as the Internet. The Dutch museum Rijksmuseum, which in 2013 launched its digital collection open to everyone, including download images in high resolution, was the motivator for the first steps of this research. Over the study it was observed that digitization of a collection, regardless of its nature, is more than a technical process of digital conversion, it is a structured and strategic process that impact systemically, functionally and organisationally the institution. Already scanning of visual artworks goes beyond the issues inherent to scan text documents, visual objects (artworks) with its aesthetic potential, must be thought from reproduction and visualisation to consider these elements as by aesthetically designed interfaces that engage users. The transposition of the role of museum institution of “caretaker” of the cultural heritage of society in which it operates for the information democratization channel and knowledge diffusion proves to be a reality, no going back. In addition, this paper provide an overview of the Brazilian museums in the use of technology. It is observed that the Brazilian museological institutions are at a preliminary stage, for lack budget constraints and even immaturity of institutions and ideological positions that resist scanning process.

BEARMAN, D. & TRANT, J. Interactivity comes of age: museums and the World Wide Web. Museum
International. Volume 51, Issue 4, p 20–24, October–December 1999.

BENJAMIN, Walter. A Obra de Arte na Era de sua Reprodutibilidade Técnica. Porto Alegre (RS):
Editora Zouk, 2014.

BESSER, Howard. Introduction to imaging. Los Angeles (CA): Getty Research Institute, 2 ed., 2003.

BETTENCOURT, Angela M. A Representação da Informação na Biblioteca Nacional do Brasil: do
documento tradicional ao digital. 2011. 183f. Dissertação (Programa de P’so-Graduação em Ciência
da Informação IBICT-UFRJ) – Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 2011.

BULLOW, Anna E. ; AHMON, Jess. Preparing Collections for Digitization. London: Facet Publishing,2010.

BURKE, Peter. Uma história social do conhecimento: de Gutenberg a Diderot. Rio de Janeiro: Jorge Zahar Ed., 2003.
_________Uma história social do conhecimento: da encyclopedia a Wikipedia. Rio de Janeiro:
Jorge Zahar Ed., 2012

BURKE, Peter ; BRINGS, Asa. Uma história social da mídia: de Gutenberg a Internet. Rio de
Janeiro: Jorge Zahar Ed., 2003.

CAMERON, Fiona ; KENDERDINE, Sarah (Ed.). Theorizing Digital Cultural Heritage. A Critical
Discourse. Cambridge, Massaschusetts.: The MIT Press. 2007.

CASTRO, Oona, MIZUKAMI, Pedro (orgs.) Brasil Pirata, Brasil Original. Rio de Janeiro (RJ): Folio
Digital: Letra e Imagem , 2013.

CONSELHO NACIONAL DE ARQUIVOS. Recomendações para digitalização de documentos
arquivísticos permanentes. Abril 2010.

DARNTON, Robert. The Case for Books: Past, Present and Future. New York (NY): PublicAffairs, 2009.
____________The Research Library in the Digital Age. Harvard University Library (2008).

FERREZ, H. D.; BIANCHINI, M. H. S. Thesaurus para acervos museológicos. Rio de Janeiro:
Ministério da Cultura, 1987. 2v. (Série Técnica).

FOSTER, Hal. The Archive without Museums. The MIT Press. October. Vol. 77 (Summer , 1996).Pp. 97-119.

FUNARTE. Cadernos técnicos de conservação fotográfica do CCPF.

HAZEN, Dan; HORRELL, Jeffrey; MERRILL-OLDHAM, Jan. Selecting research collections for
digitization. Council on Library and Information Resources, 1998.

IBRAM, Guia dos Museus Brasileiros. Brasília (DF): Instituto Brasileiro de Museus, 2011.
_____ Museus em Números. Brasília (DF): Instituto Brasileiro de Museus, 2011. Vol.1.
_____Museus em Números. Brasília (DF): Instituto Brasileiro de Museus, 2011. Vol.2.

ICOM. Conceitos-chave de museologia. São Paulo (SP): Comitê Brasileiro do Conselho Internacional
de Museus: Pinacoteca do Estado de São Paulo : Secretaria de Estado da Cultura, 2013.

JONES-GARMIL, K. Museums in the Information Age. ICHIM, Hands on: Hypermedia and Interactivity
in Museums 1995: 1-12

KENNEY, Anne E., RIEGER, Oya.Y. Moving theory into practice: digital imaging for libraries and
archives. Research Libraries Group, 2000.

KOPTCKE. Luciana S., PEREIRA, Marcele R.N. Museus e seus arquivos: em busca de fontes para
estudar os públicos. Scielo. Hist. Cienc.Saude-Manguinhos vol.17 no.3 Rio de Janeiro 2010.

LEE, Stuart D. Digital imaging, a practical handbook. London: Library Association Publishing, 2000.

LIMA, Manuel. Visual Complexity: Mapping Patterns of Information. New York (NY): Princeton
Architectural Press 2011.

MANOVICH, Lev. Museum Without Walls, Art History Without Names: Visualization Methods for
Humanities and Media Studies. The Oxford Handbook of Sound and Image in Digital Media. Oxford
University Press (2012).
_______________ Teoria dos Nurbs. São Paulo (SP), Imprensa Oficial, 2009.
_______________ Watching the World. Aperture magazine, no 214 Spring 2014.

MINERVA. Technical Guidelines for Digital Cultural Content Creation Programmes (Version 2.0), 2008.

MOORE, Caroline; TOMLIN, Julian. Renaissance East Midlands, Digitization Guide: A simple guide to
digitization for museums, 2009.

NISO. A Framework of Guidance for Building Good Digital Collections. Baltimore (MD): NISO Press,
_____ Understanding Metadata. Bethesda (MD): NISO Press, 2004.

OLDFIELD, M. The Secret Museum: Some treasures are too precious to display. Firefly Books, 2013.

SAVAZONI, Rodrigo; COHN, Sérgio. (orgs.) Cultura digital.br. Rio de Janeiro (RJ): Beco do Azougue,

THE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COUNCIL. O Dilema Digital, questões estratégicas na guarda e
no acesso a materiais cinematográficos digitais, Cinemateca Brasileira, 2009.

TUFTE, Edward R. Visual Explanations: images and quantities, evidence and narrative. Cheshire
(Conneccticut): Graphics Press, 1997.
________________ Envisioning Information. Cheshire (Conneccticut): Graphic Press, 1990.

VIEGAS, Fernanda B. ; WATTENBERG, Martin. Artistic Data Visualization: Beyond Visual Analytics.
Online Communities and Social Comput., HCII 2007, v. 4564, p. 182-191, 2007.